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The book I suppose is dated (1979), but I found it helpful in several respects: (1) As opposed to a common impression that space is a void, Kaufman says that it contains matter. (2) The arms of spiral galaxies, he says, compress the matter in space as they move around the galactic core; this in turn gives birth to stars as matter is compressed to its critical ignition point. (3) When compression via gravity reaches a critical point, the structure of atoms breaks down; when energy cools down after an explosive event, atoms re-form and combine to form matter. (4) Whereas the sun rotates once every four weeks, a neutron star* rotates once a second or faster, creating “a magnetic field a trillion times stronger than the sun’s field.” (5) A massive dying star (2 ½ solar masses) “shrinks under the relentless, unforgiving influence of gravity. The enormous weight of trillions upon trillions of tons of burned-out stellar material pressing inward from all sides causes the star to get smaller and smaller. Indeed, the entire star is crushed out of existence at a single point. During this implosion, gravity around the collapsing star becomes so strong that the very fabric of space and time fold over themselves, and the star literally disappears from the universe. What is left is called a black hole.” (6) While these black holes are huge, they are nothing compared to galactic collapses that end up as super, massive black holes that then explode as quasars (once viewed as “quasi-stellar” entities). (7) When compression reaches a certain point, an explosive event occurs within the physics of energy and matter (hence, big bang-like events). Elsewhere, Kaufmann’s sentences and statements make less sense. Referring to Einstein’s theory of general relativity, Kaufmann states that gravity is not a force. Rather, what we call gravity is the effect of bodies moving across warped space (massive bodies depress space and less massive bodies follow that depressed trajectory). But he also continues to refer to “the gravitational force” and to gravity as “a long-range force.” “All matter carries gravity,” he writes, and “all gravity warps the geometry of space and time.” Written this way, isn’t gravity a “thing” that is “carried,” and a thing that “acts?” He states that “this geometry must influence the behavior of the matter across the cosmos,” but is this just a coded way to say that “influence” really means “force?” Kaufmann’s references to space-time are also confusing. All spatial relationships in the cosmos involve a time dimension (time between objects or events). Here time is understood as a measurement component inherent in vast, cosmic-level spatial relationships, but later Kaufmann notes that gravity not only bends space, but also it literally slows down time (a clock or the body’s existence in time). So is time now a physical entity as well as a measurement concept? Kaufmann is also not clear on the question of what creates motion in the cosmos. In a spherical universe, for example, expansion will end and contraction will begin because of energy and matter collapsing into itself because of gravity. Elsewhere, he states that movement is explained by warped space-time. Gravity, in other words, is the inducer of cosmic motion. But in flat or hyperbolic space scenarios, there is no contraction due to gravity. Rather, there’s infinite expansion. Is there a gravitational “force” beyond the leading edge of the expansion that warps space-time? Presumably not. If so, is movement via expansion accounted for by a propulsive force, something internal to energy and matter, separate from warped space-time?*The collapse of a massive star to a point of density that “vigorously resists any further squeezing. The stellar corpse has become a neutron star.”

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